The Birds

The Birds

THE BIRDS ARISTOPHANES Some critics it is true profess to find in it a reference to the unfortunate Sicilian Expedition then in progress and a prophecy of its failure and the political downfall of Alcibiades. But as a matter of fact the whole thing seems rather an attempt on the dramatist's part to relieve the overwrought minds of his fellow- citizens anxious and discouraged at the unsatisfactory reports from before Syracuse by a work conceived in a lighter vein than usual and mainly unconnected with contemporary realities. The play was produced in the year 414 B.C. just when success or failure in Sicily hung in the balance though already the outlook was gloomy and many circumstances pointed to impending disaster. Moreover the public conscience was still shocked and perturbed over the mysterious affair of the mutilation of the Hermae which had occurred immediately before the sailing of the fleet and strongly suspicious of Alcibiades' participation in the outrage. In spite of the inherent charm of the subject the splendid outbursts of lyrical poetry in some of the choruses and the beauty of the scenery and costumes 'The Birds' failed to win the first prize. This was acclaimed to a play of Aristophanes' rival Amipsias the title of which 'The Comastoe' or 'Revellers' "seems to imply that the chief interest was derived from direct allusions to the outrage above mentioned and to the individuals suspected to have been engaged in it." For this reason which militated against its immediate success viz. the absence of direct allusion to contemporary politics-- there are of course incidental references here and there to topics and personages of the day--the play appeals perhaps more than any other of our Author's productions to the modern reader. Sparkling wit whimsical fancy poetic charm are of all ages and can be appreciated as readily by ourselves as by an Athenian audience of two thousand years ago though of course much is inevitably lost "without the important adjuncts of music scenery dresses and what we may call 'spectacle' generally which we know in this instance to have been on the most magnificent scale." The plot is this. Euelpides and Pisthetaerus two old Athenians disgusted with the litigiousness wrangling and sycophancy of their countrymen resolve upon quitting Attica. Having heard of the fame of Epops (the hoopoe) sometime called Tereus and now King of the Birds they determine under the direction of a raven and a jackdaw to seek from him and his subject birds a city free from all care and strife." Arrived at the Palace of Epops they knock and Trochilus (the wren) in a state of great flutter as he mistakes them for fowlers opens the door and informs them that his Majesty is asleep. When he awakes the strangers appear before him and after listening to a long and eloquent harangue on the superior attractions of a residence among the birds they propose a notable scheme of their own to further enhance its advantages and definitely secure the sovereignty of the universe now exercised by the gods of Olympus. The birds are summoned to meet in general council. They come flying up from all quarters of the heavens and after a brief mis- understanding during which they come near tearing the two human envoys to pieces they listen to the exposition of the latters' plan. This is nothing less than the building of a new city to be called Nephelococcygia or 'Cloud-cuckoo-town' between earth and heaven to be garrisoned and guarded by the birds in such a way as to intercept all communication of the gods with their worshippers on earth. All steam of sacrifice will be prevented from rising to Olympus and the Immortals will very soon be starved into an acceptance of any terms proposed. The new Utopia is duly constructed and the daring plan to secure the sovereignty is in a fair way to succeed. Meantime various quacks and charlatans each with a special scheme for improving things arrive from earth and are one after the other exposed and dismissed. Presently arrives Prometheus who informs Epops of the desperate straits to which the gods are by this time reduced and advises him to push his claims and demand the hand of Basileia (Dominion) the handmaid of Zeus. Next an embassy from the Olympians appears on the scene consisting of Heracles Posidon and a god from the savage regions of the Triballians. After some disputation it is agreed that all reasonable demands of the birds are to be granted while Pisthetaerus is to have Basileia as his bride. The comedy winds up with the epithalamium in honour of the nuptials. DRAMATIS PERSONAE EUELPIDES PISTHETAERUS EPOPS (the Hoopoe) TROCHILUS Servant to Epops PHOENICOPTERUS HERALDS A PRIEST A POET A PROPHET METON a Geometrician A COMMISSIONER A DEALER IN DECREES IRIS A PARRICIDE CINESIAS a Dithyrambic Bard AN INFORMER PROMETHEUS POSIDON TRIBALLUS HERACLES SLAVES OF PISTHETAERUS MESSENGERS CHORUS OF BIRDS SCENE: A wild desolate tract of open country; broken rocks and brushwood occupy the centre of the stage. EUELPIDES (TO HIS JAY)[1] Do you think I should walk straight for yon tree? f[1] Euelpides is holding a jay and Pisthetaerus a crow; they are the guides who are to lead them to the kingdom of the birds. PISTHETAERUS (TO HIS CROW) Cursed beast what are you croaking to me?...to retrace my steps? EUELPIDES Why you wretch we are wandering at random we are exerting ourselves only to return to the same spot; 'tis labour lost. PISTHETAERUS To think that I should trust to this crow which has made me cover more than a thousand furlongs! EUELPIDES And that I to this jay which has torn every nail from my fingers! PISTHETAERUS If only I knew where we were.... EUELPIDES Could you find your country again from here? PISTHETAERUS ...